India is officially known as Republic of India. Stretched across a land mass of over 3,000,000 sq km, this country is also called Bharat. India boasts of world’s second largest population, just after China, which holds the crown of being the most populous country in world. Land-locked on northern side by the Himalayas and flanked by large water bodies on east, west and southern sides, India’s civilization spans to over 5,000 years. To explore this wonderful country you would need a valid India visa.
Supposed to a highly sophisticated and advanced civilization, the Indus Valley civilization existed on India’s soil in 2500 BC. The most celebrated sites are Mohenjo-Daro and Harrapa. The remains of these can be seen when you travel west of Rajasthan, an Indian State with a valid India visa. The civilization came to an end mostly because of geographic changes in the region.
The next two thousand years saw development of important historical events like evolution of Hinduism religion. Vedas were the epitome of Brahmin civilization. Other religions that later evolved were Jainism and Buddhism. Magadha Kingdom in the plains of Bihar was the first kingdom and was ruled by Bimbisara. The kingdom’s remains can be explored by tourists but they should have an India visa.
Alexander the Great invaded India in 327 BC. He reached till the border of Magadha Empire but was defeated by its ruler Chandragupta. It was Asoka, the Maurayan emperor, who unified India and ruled it for many years. He is also famous for Sarnath temple and Ashoka Chakra, which can be explored in Varanasi on an India visa.
After Asoka’s decline, in South India, kingdoms of Pandya and Chola emerged, which were extremely advanced and maintained trade with the Roman Empire. They constructed numerous structures which can be explored by tourists on India visa.
Some important facts:
- Rise and fall of Kushans under Kanishka. The famous headless Kanishka statue and coins of his dynasty are on display in Mathura museum. If you have India visa, you can visit these.
- Gupta dynasty was the golden age of India in 4th-5th AD.
- Medieval period saw rise and fall of Palas, Sen, Ahoms, Chola and Chalukya dynasties. At the same time Rajputs were gaining power in the north-west India. Rajputs are responsible for constructing huge “havelis” or forts all across Rajasthan. India visa holders can enjoy the grandeur of these buildings.
- 10th century saw Muslim raiders like Mahmud of Ghazna.
- In 11th-12th century Turkish replaced them. During this time Prithviraj Chauhan was defeated by Ghors and the first Muslim estate was established in India.
- Babur founded Mughal Empire, which reached its pinnacle during the reign of King Akbar. Numerous monuments like Taj Mahal and Red Fort were constructed during the Muslim era. If you want to explore these, you must have an India visa.
- British Empire in India started in 1763.